波尔塔瓦州（乌克兰语：Полтавська область；英语：Poltava Oblast）是乌克兰中部的一个州，首府波尔塔瓦。
FACTS AND FIGURES
Poltava region (oblast) is administrative territorial unit of Ukraine with center in Poltava city. Region was formed on September 22, 1937.
Historically previous administrative formation of the territory was Poltava province, which was formed on February 27, 1802 and consisted of 10, later of 12, and from 1803 of 15 districts (povit).
Up to beginning of XX Poltava had been stand as an agricultural province with large landlord properties.
On 22 September 1937, Poltava region was founded from 45 districts and 2 cities.
In 1937 there were 224 industrial enterprise and 312 industrial cooperative farms in Poltava region. On the beginning of 1938 the region had got near 2727 collective farms, which was enshrined by 3238.7 thousand ha of arable land.
Nowadays administrative division of region represented by the following structure: 25 districts; 6 cities of regional submission; 9 cities of district submission; 21 villages (urban type); 1783 villages (rural settlements).
Poltava region is one of the leaders in implementing reform of Decentralization and amalgamation of territorial communities. Nowadays there are 27 voluntary amalgamated communities with a total population more than 188 thsn.people ( or 13,2% of general region population) in Poltava region.
After procedure of amalgamation, budgets of new formed communities were increased in 4 times up to the level of 542 mln. UAH (which 333 mln. UAH is own revenues) in 2016. Also communities gained access to new financial support instruments as infrastructure subvention (was allotted 57 mln. UAH from State budget in 2016) and funds of State Fund of Regional Development. There were 8 investment project that realized in 2016 with total estimate costs of more than 9 mln UAH and co-funding by SFRD.
There were more than 110 development projects were realized by amalgamated communities in 2016 in quite different areas: improving of road infrastructure; overhaul and reconstruction of educational, medical and cultural institutions; setting up of Administrative Service Provision Centers network.
LOCATION AND APPROACHABILITY
Region is situated in the central part of Ukraine on the left bank of Dnipro River. The most part of region situated within Prydniprovska lowland plains and Poltava plain.
Poltava Region area is 28 748 km2 (4,76 % of all-Ukraine territory) and it brings region on 6-th place of all-Ukraine rating of region on this index.
The length of the territory from the North to the South is 213.5 km, and from the West to the East is 245 km. Neighboring areas to the Poltava region are: on the North – Chernihiv and Sumy regions, on the East – Kharkiv region; on the South Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovograd regions; on the west – Kyiv and Cherkasy regions of Ukraine.
On the south and south-west Poltava region is washed by waters of Kremenchuk and Dnitrodzerzhynsk reservoirs.
Agricultural regional land occupied 2.2 million. ha; forests - 9,77% of the territory; water recourses include 146 rivers, also two river (Dnipro and Psel) with stretching over 500 km.
Poltava region take important place in structure of Ukraine transport complex.
Share of Poltava region in the structure of transport characterized by the following technical parameters.
Railway tracks 851,6 km
Highways 18034 km
- incl. dirt roads 2268 km
Freight turnover index of road transport - 5%.
Amounts of bridges 662
Briges length – 23,1 km
Main highway – E40
The maximum distance of settlements from the railroad does not exceed 50 km. The largest and structure-forming railway junctions are: Poltava, Kremenchuk, Grebinka, Romodan, and railway station Lubny and Myrgorod.
Distance from Poltava to Kyiv is 343 km can overcome by car in 4 hours, or by high-speed trains "Intercity +" within 3 hours.
Distances from Poltava to the largest cities in Ukraine
Dnipro - 193
Kyiv - 343
Donets - 391
Simferopol - 631
Zaporizhzhya - 277
Sumy - 185
Lviv - 898
Kharkiv - 144
The is river port in city Kremenchuk , which has all necessary facilities. The port is open to vessels of type «river-sea» and got the ability to receive a variety of goods from the ports of river Dnipro, the Black and Mediterranean seas, and to deliver Ukrainian manufacturers products on the European market.
The total area of the port is 18.8 ha, the length of the quay wall - 608 linear meters.
Poltava regional municipal enterprise «Airport Poltava» is facility complex located on 214 ha.
Concrete airstrip with length of 2550 m and a width of 42 m provides the arriving and departure of the aircraft with total take-off weight of 61 tones and equipped by air landing lights system M2 \ 2.
Available specialized machines and equipment allow to fully ensuring the maintenance of aircraft of such types: АН-12, АН-24, АН-140, ЯК-40, ЯК-42, ТУ-134, Falkon-900, JET-328, GLF-550, CRJ-2, Embraer-145, SAAB-340.
Nowadays PRME «Airport Poltava» is capable enterprise that can provide landing, takeoff and maintenance of aircraft. Also it has got all the relevant permits and certificates to conduct aviation activity.
ENVIRONMENT AND PEOPLE
Population of the region is 1 427 855 people (3,36% Ukraine inhabitants).
Population of cities of regional submission:
Poltava 292,3 thsd.people
Kremenchuk 222,0 thsd.people
Horischni Plavni 54,6 thsd.people
Lubny 46,2 thsd.people
Myrgorod 40,2 thsd.people
Hagiach 23,9 thsd.people
Geographic position of region is defined by location in temperate climate zone with temperate continental climate type.
The average temperature in January - -3,7 ° C, in July - +21,4 ° C, rainfall is 580-480 mm / year, falling mainly in summer.
About 2/3 of the amount of days in a year dominated by continental air masses subtype of the Eurasian land, 1/3 days - sea subtype of air masses from northern and central Atlantic and inland seas - Mediterranean, the Black sea, The sea of Azov.
Forest cover of region with shrubs and forest belts is 9,77% (274.6 thousand. ha). Average forest cover of Ukraine is 15% and world average is 29%. Main types of forest on the territory of region are deciduous oak forests and coniferous pine forests.
Flora of Poltava region includes near 2 thousands types of taxonomic groups of plants. The fauna is represented by over 400 species of animals. Among its are about 40-50 species of fish, 10 species of amphibians, 11 species of reptiles, 300 species of birds (including 150 species that nesting in the region, as well as migratory and wintering), 66 species of mammals.
In general Poltava region has got powerful potential of land resources.
The highest level of natural resource potential inherent in following districts: Kremenchuk district (with advantage of mineral resources), Hadiach district (with great potential of mineral and forest resources), Myrgorod district (with great potential of mineral waters, water recourses and recreation) and Globyno district (with the highest level of land and water recourses).
Poltava region one of the richest areas in which the structure of soil represented mainly by black soil.
There are 9/10 of arable land area of region are black soil. Poltava black soil suitable for growing almost all agricultural products, given the inherent climatic zone and even some southern types (grapes, peaches, etc.). Agricultural lands covers share of 77.9% in the structure of regional land capital.
In Poltava region explored more than 10 kinds of minerals: oil, gas, coal, peat, iron ore, building materials, mineral water ect.
There are more than 250 fields where it’s extracting.
Poltava region takes 2nd place in Ukraine regional rating according to reserves and production of natural gas (about 8,5 billion. м3). Also region has got significant deposits of oil. The largest oil condensate fields are located in Hadiach, Lokhvytsia, Zinkiv districts; the largest gas condensate fields are located in Poltava, Maschivka, Kotelva, Hadiach and Chutovo districts. Stocks of iron ore that concentrated in Kremenchuk anomalies are detected at a depth of 700-1500 meters.
On the territory of region were revealed more than 100 deposits of building materials (building stone, ceramic, brick, expanded clay materials, etc.).
Oil, natural gas, gas condensate 98 fields
Iron Ore 10 fields
Peat 44 fields (stocks of more than 50 mln. tons)
Brick and tile raw materials (clay loam) 22 fields
Sand for building 9 fields
Granites and migmatites 9 fields
Brown coal more than 800 mln. tons (resources)
In the region operate more than 20 sources of mineral and table water, the main of them are Myrdorodska, Gogolivska, Novosanzharska, Kremenchutska, Khorolska ect.
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
There are 31 high education institutions (state, communal and private form of property) and 42 vocational and technical education institutions that provide educational services in the Poltava region.
Young people can get an education in more than 200 undergraduate and graduate specialties and become part the country's scientific potential, having postgraduate and doctoral studying.
There are more that 2 thousand students – citizens of foreign countries received high education diploma at Poltava universities and academies.
State high education institution, that provide academic-scientific activity in region are: High State Education Institution of Ukraine «Ukraine Medical Stomatological Academy», High Education Institution of Ukoopspilka (Central Union of Consumer Associations of Ukraine) «Poltava university of economic and trade», Kremenchuk National Mykhailo Ostrogradskii University, Poltava National Pedagogical Volodymyr Korolenko University, Poltava National Technical Yuri Kondratyuk University.
LEISURE, TOURISM AND RECREATION
Poltava region has significant tourism and recreational potential among the other regions central Ukraine.
There are 75 hotels, 12 sanatoriums (resorts), 230 travel agencies, 76 homestead, 23 centers of active tourism, 15 tourist information centers, more than 300 entities in sphere of tourism.
Local register of tour guides includes more than 200 professionals and continually updated with new personnel. There are three high education institutions that prepared specialists for this sphere. Demand of studying on this specialty is constantly increasing. Studying programme include different events that contribute to unite theory and practice for effective internship on tourist infrastructure objects
More than 100 tourist and excursion routes different types of tourism are proposed for tourists in Poltava region. There are 38 state and 100 public museums that are included in main cultural sightseeing routes. Museum institutions in the region constantly improve ways of working and expand services.
During the last years it was implemented night, interactive, staging tours. There are 387 territories and nature reserve fund objects such kind as wildlife preserve, natural monuments and landscape gardening art, four regional landscape parks, arboretum ect.
Sanatorium and health resort vacation is carried out using own sources of mineral water (at Poltava, Novi Sanzhary, Myrgorod, Zinkiv and Velyka Bagachka districts). All these territories are perspective for ecotourism.
Nowadays company «Myrgorod resort (orig. Myrgorodkurort)» or is one of the most powerful health-resort system in Ukraine. In 2011 was adopted Ukraine law «About announcement of natural areas of Myrgorod city in Poltava region as resort of national importance». Nowadays most of health resort institutions of region got quite popularity and stable fullness reached up to 100 percents
Many ethnographic routes are the adornment of the Poltava region (ceramics at Opischnia, Myrgorod, Pyriatyn; embroidery and weaving at Reschetylivka; art painting of Easter eggs – Karlivka), where are performed and used handicrafts with its conservation and restoration. Also a lot of workshops are organizing in frame of such kind of tours.
Substantial contribution to the process of attracting tourists made by cultural and artistic events that are held in cities and districts. All of them are famous in Ukraine and far from it, the most popular are: «Rise, Pysanko!» (Karlivka district), «Reschetylivka spring» (Reschetylivka), «Colors of Lemkivshchyna» (Zinkiv district), «Songs of lilac grove» (Dykanka), National Festival of pottery (Opischnia, Zinkiv district), Regional kobzar art fest at Velyka Bagachka ect. National Sorochyn Fair is an old traditional tourist event that brings together several hundred thousand tourists every year.
Poltava region got all conditions for short term tourism (weekend tours) for neighboring regions; active leisure (horse riding, walking, cycling, fitness), rural green tourism, hunting and fishing.
Almost all parts of the region are promising for the development of various types of tourism and got ability to provide multi-type tourist service.
Agriculture in one of the main sectors of the regional economy that provides sustainable production growth. According to gross production output Poltava region take 2nd place in the all Ukraine rating of this indicator. Agriculture gross production is formed by two main groups of producers: agricultural companies and private households.
Agricultural companies play important role in process of export-oriented cultivation. These companies produce 83% of all-region amount of corn, 85% of sunflower seeds and 97% of sugar beet.
In the structure of agriculture gross output share of plant growing field is 77.9% and stockbreeding products is 22.1%.
There are 2,6 thsd. agricultural companies including 2thsd. farms that realized agricultural production in Poltava region.
Overall there are 2.2 mln. ha of agricultural land, including 1.8 mln. hectares of arable land are using in production process in the region. Nowadays, 1.3 million ha are reseeded by agricultural enterprises and 443.7thsd. ha (24.5%) are using by households.
As Poltava region has near 5% of agricultural land of Ukraine, in 2016 all categories of economy produced 7.5% of national amount of milk, 8.8% - of cereals and legumes (including corn), 15,0% - of sugar beet (factory), 6.1% - of sunflower seed, 11,6 % - soybean.
There are 56 investment objects had been implemented in agricultural sector of Poltava region during 2016. Total cost 542,1 million UAH. of which already realized 318,3 million UAH. (58,7%).
There are 31 investment objects with costs 122 million UAH was completed including, 21 objects in field of stockbreeding with costs 21,8 million UAH, 9 objects in field of plant growing with costs 98,7 million UAH and 1 object of milk processing sectors. All of these measures 110 workplaces were created hereby.
Agricultural production occupies a leading position in the export potential of the region.
Summary of 2016 showed that total export of agricultural product and processed agricultural product was 457.1 million USD, that relevant to 31,9% of Poltava region export volume. The export volumes of agricultural products exceeded the volume of its imports by over 5 times.
To increase the volume of agricultural products and agricultural competitiveness on internal and external markets is possible through the introduction of organic production.
Potential for development of organic production is possible to realize also thought activity of private enterprise of «Agroecology», that provides activity during last 20 years on area of 6-thsd he. This private enterprise of Shyshaky district is a good example of how agricultural company can multiply its wealth without harm of nature.
Nowadays near 15 agricultural enterprise of region the status of special primary products zones and produces high quality products for the production of dietetic and baby food.
Also private enterprise «Argoecology» and Poltava State Agrarian Academy founded Center of organic agriculture «Poltava-Organic». The purpose of foundation of this center is innovation system of innovation development the production, processing and forming tendency of consumption of environmentally safe products.
Development of organic agriculture and producing of organic food products is the main reason of Public union «Poltava society of agriculture». This union founded by leading agricultural enterprises of region with support of Poltava Regional State Administration. It activity directed on development and implementation of research programmes, restoration and preservation of soil fertility, implementation of system organic farming, economical attitude to biological diversity and balance in the environment.
In the region this industry presented by near 120 of big and medium enterprises and more than 500 of small enterprises and crafts, that provides processing of agricultural production. Food and processing industry traditionally take leader role in economic development of region.
Average annual volume of agricultural product sales during the last five years was near 16 billion of UAH.
INDUSTRY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP (BUSINESS)
Industry is the basis of the regional economy and generates 50% of GRP. Today Poltava region has more than 400 industrial enterprises.
In the structure of industrial production the largest share belongs to mechanical engineering, oil and gas complex, mining and food industries.
Modern industrial structure if formed by following fields: railway mechanical engineering, automotive engineering, chemical equipment production, electrical and electronic equipment, machine tool and instrument.
The most powerful machine-building enterprises of Poltava are PJSC «Kryukovsky railway car building works», PJSC «AvtoKrAZ», PJSC «Kremenchuk wheel plant», PJSC «Elektromotor», Public Stock Company «Poltava Turbomechanical Plant», Public JSC «Kredmash», PJSC «Poltava Machinery Plant», PJSC «Poltava automobile unit plant», PJSC «Diesel locomotive repair plant» and other companies, that well-known in the region and in Ukraine.
PJSC «Kryukovsky railway car building works» is a leader of the Ukrainian railway car building industry with a full production cycle, from generating ideas and design to design high-tech producing of import-substituting products.
It is one of the first machine-building enterprises of Ukraine, which certified its quality system according to ISO 9001 and International railway industry standard IRIS. Also it is unique enterprise which specializes in production of cargo and passenger railway carriage, as well as products for the underground - subway carriage, carriage and tunnel escalators.
PJSC «AvtoKrAZ» is exclusive Ukrainian producer of heavy trucks with a closed production cycle.
The lineup of automotive vehicles of trade mark «KrAZ» includes over 30 basic models and over one hundred modifications and equipment for installation on chassis KrAZ, which is widely used for the needs of the armed forces of Ukraine, agriculture, road and municipal services for emergency response ect.
Mining industry is presented by great enterprises of Ukraine – Ferrexpo Poltava Mining and Ferrexpo Yeristovo Mining.
Ferrexpo Poltava Mining is one of the largest enterprises of Ukraine, with a full production cycle, from extraction of raw ore to producing open pit iron ore pellets for steel mills.
By using of various enrichment schemes the share of iron content in pellet can reached up to 60%-65%. Plant products exported to ferrous metallurgy of various world countries.
Since 2013 extraction of iron ore also realized by Ferrexpo Yeristovo Mining. During the last years mining industry consistently demonstrates positive dynamics of production through the introduction of highly innovative investment projects by Ferrexpo Poltava Mining and Ferrexpo Yeristovo Mining.
Oil and gas industry
Oil and gas industry is one of the most important components of the regional economy, and the whole Ukraine, which largely provides both the operation of all other sectors, and the degree of welfare. It plays an important role in the economic development of the country, its security, energy independence, agriculture and other industries. The Poltava region locates in Eastern oil and gas-bearing region and has got the biggest hydrocarbon deposits in the country.
The hydrocarbon potential (reserves) of Poltava region is about 1954,2 million tons of equivalent fuel, including reserves in fields located in the industrial development – 661,6 million tons, reserves of hydrocarbons in the fields and areas that are geologically studying – 194,7 million tons, perspective and expected resources (according to preliminary estimates) - 1097.9 million tons.
The share of oil and gas complex in the structure of industry is near 23%.
In 2016 oil and gas enterprises of Poltava region produced the following: natural gas – 8,5 billion m3, oil – 193,7 thsn. tons and gas condensate – 423,8 thsn. tons. All amounts of production and output was increased compared to previous year.
Poltava region is a Ukraine leader in total hydrocarbon production in Ukraine, the share of gas condensate production – 66,2% (1st place), natural gas – 42,5% (2nd place), crude oil – 12,1% (3rd place).
The largest companies in the region that operate on hydrocarbon extraction are branch of «Poltavagasvydobuvannya» Gas Production Division, PJSC «Ukrgazvydobuvannya», NJSC «Naftogaz of Ukraine», OGED «Poltavanaftogas» of PJSC «Ukrnafta», PrJSC «Naftogazvydobuvannya», PrJSC «Natural resourses», JV «Poltava Petroleum Company».
Food and processing industry
Also region got a very powerful food industry that includes more than 200 enterprises of meat, dairy, sugar, baking, confectionery, flour, alcoholic beverage, brewing, oil and fat industry, production of soft (non-alcoholic) drinks.
The region provides over 20% of the total volume of sugar and cheese, as well as almost 40% of tobacco.
Poltava food industry enterprises are specialized in producing high quality products that complies with international standards.
The main trade mark of region in sphere of food industry are: «Pyryatyn cheese plant», «Gadiach cheese», «Harmony», «Farro», «Dominik», «Milk way», «Lukas», «Myrgorod water», «JTI (Japan Tobacco International) Ukraine» ect.
Industry processing of agricultural products in the region is represented by nearly 120 large and medium-sized enterprises and more than 500 small businesses. Processing industry traditionally takes a leading role in the regional economy.
TRADE AND INVESTMENT
The important factor of the regional economic development is increasing its export potential.
After analysis of changing foreign trade turnover, we admitted that outstanding balance of external trade stands positive during the last years. By results of 2016 foreign trade turnover of goods and services in the region totaled to 2.5 billion USD. Export volume of product and services was near 1.5 billion USD, and import – near 1,0 billion USD. Positive outstanding balance was on the level of 500 million USD.
Poltava region takes the 8th place among the regions of Ukraine according to the export product volume. The biggest trade partners of the region are EU countries. Share in total volume of product export that going to these countries is 40,4 % and export supplies covered almost all countries.
In general, the region sells its products up to 125 countries.
On European market the biggest customers of Poltava region products are Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary and on Asian market – P.R. China, Japan and Turkey.
Traditionally basis of exports formed by mineral products, herbal products and ready food products, land transport means, fats and oils of of animal origin, machinery and equipment.
The structure of import also presented by mineral products, ready food products, products of chemical industry.
On January 01, 2017 accumulated amount of foreign direct investments (FDI) in enterprises of Poltava region is more than 1 billion USD, that was received from investors of 45 countries.
During 2016 region economy received 28,1 million USD as direct investments. The biggest investments in region belong to partners from Switzerland, the Netherlands, Cyprus and the United Kingdom.
Geographical structure of foreign investments
The biggest investment are realized in industrial enterprises and its share in total volume of foreign direct investments is 78,1%
Foreign investors that invested largest amounts of capital into enterprises of Poltava region are:
Ferrexpo Group (iron ore extraction, Switzerland),
JKX OIL & GAS plc (extraction of hydrocarbons, The UK),
Japan Tobacco International (tobacco industry, Japan),
IDS Group (Production of mineral water),
Sigma Bleyzer (confectionery production, USA),
Pioneer Hi-Bred (storage of seeds, USA).
Priority sectors for investment in the region are:
Production of Instruments;
Extraction of minerals with processing in the region;
Also in Kremenchuk was created Industrial park «Central» on total are sod 168,55 he. Within the territory of this park to foreign investors offered to locate enterprises of the following spheres:
Production of instrument, mechanical engineering and other areas of productions through the implementing of new developed technologic;
Information, communication technologies and nanotechnology, production of electronics;
Food and processing industry;
Design and production of high-tech medical devices, biotechnology.
To ensure an open dialogue between government and investors was founded the Council of Local and Foreign Investors at Poltava Regional State Administration.